John J Bauer, MD, FACS John J. Bauer, M.D., F.A.C.S.
www.flinturology.com

Urology Services, Inc.
G-1121 West Hill Rd.
Flint, Michigan 48507
Tel: 810.232.8888
Fax: 810.232.9190
Email: jbauer@flinturology.com
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Artifical Urinary Sphincter (AUS-800)
Surgery Details

Contents
General information
Pre-operative instructions
Risks and Complications
Detailed Surgery Description
Family waiting instructions
Post-operative instructions

Printing tip: If you want to print only one portion of this entire document, you should be able to do this depending on your software. To print a selection, highlight the section you want to print using your mouse, then click on print, and then in the print menu, choose "selection."

Terminology tip: If you come across words you don't understand, look them up in the On-Line Medical Dictionary�.



General Information

This procedure is performed to correct stress urinary incontinence in men after prostate surgery for benign tumors (BPH) and prostate cancer. This procedure places a silicone cuff prosthesis around the urethra, a small pump in the scrotum and a reservoir in the abdomen to prevent leakage of urine. (See figure below.)

Artificial Urinary Sphincter, AUS-800, male

Visit the AMS site for more information on this prosthesis.

For video presentations on the urinary sphincter, you can watch the videos available at these links:

The device functions by keeping fluid in the urethral cuff, which acts to close the urethra with 60-70 cm of water pressure (good enough for daily activity). When the patient wishes to urinate, he simply presses on the pump 3-4 times and the fluid is moved from the cuff to the reservoir so that urination can proceed. After about two minutes, the fluid automatically re-fills the cuff. A less invasive alternative to this procedure is the Male Sling operation. The AUS-800 can be placed after a failed male sling operation as a second attempt to control leakage and vice versa.

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Pre-Operative Instructions

Your pre-operative appointments

Before your surgery, you will be seen by the physician and the anesthesiologist, and when applicable, there is a pre-admission appointment with the hospital. Click here to read more details about these appointments, referred to as the Pre-Operative Work-Up.

Change In Health Status

Notify your surgeon if you experience any significant change in your health status: develop a cold, influenza, a bladder infection, diarrhea, or other infection, before your surgery.

Pre-Operative Medication Instructions

Unless specifically instructed otherwise by your surgeon or anesthesiologist, please observe the following guidelines for taking your medicines before surgery:

  1. One Week Prior to Surgery:
    - STOP all aspirin and all aspirin-containing medicines (e.g., Anacin, Excedrin, Pepto-Bismol). Check any cold or pain medication bottles to make certain aspirin is not contained. See additional list at Blood Thinners.

  2. Two Days Prior to Surgery:
    - STOP all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (e.g., etodolac [Lodine], fenoprofen [Nalfon], ibuprofen [Advil, Motrin, Nuprin], ketorolac [Toradol], maproxen [Aleve], meclofenarnate [Meclomen], mefenamic acid [Ponstel], naproxen [Anaprox, Naprosyn].

  3. Day Before Your Surgery:
    Start the pre-operative Bowel Prep (cleansing procedure) appropriate for this surgery.

    As injury to the bowel is unlikely in this procedure, you will have the simplest form of a bowel preparation, described below.

  4. On the Morning of your Surgery:

Pre-Operative Diet Instructions

Unless specifically instructed otherwise by your surgeon or anesthesiologist, patients of all ages must observe the following diet restrictions before surgery:

  1. Eight hours before the Scheduled Start of your Surgery:
    DO NOT EAT any solid foods, including juices with pulp (e.g., orange juice, nectars), lozenges, candy, chewing gum, and mints. DO NOT DRINK full liquid, such as milk, cream, and jello. You may continue to drink up to eight ounces of clear liquids until SIX hours before the scheduled start of your surgery. Clear liquids include Water, clear juices (e.g., apple, grape), black tea and black coffee.
  2. Six hours before the Scheduled Start of your Surgery:
    DO NOT TAKE anything by mouth except for your usual medicines; follow the Preoperative medication instructions above.
  3. Exceptions:
    DO NOT TAKE anything by mouth for eight hours, except for your usual medicines, if you are pregnant, morbidly obese, or are diagnosed with diabetes, renal failure, or stomach acid reflux with heartburn.

Patients undergoing operative or diagnostic procedures involving sedation are required to refrain from eating, drinking or taking anything by mouth for a stated period prior to their surgery or procedure. The reason for this is to prevent complications caused by nausea or vomiting while you are unconscious. Should you vomit while in the unconscious state, the risk exists that the vomit may enter into your lungs causing serious complications such as pneumonia. These complications may result in an extension of your hospitalization following your surgical procedure. It is for this reason patients are often instructed to have nothing by mouth after midnight the night prior to your operation unless otherwise instructed by an anesthetist.

Pre-Operative Cleaning Instructions (bathing and showering instructions)

Pre-operative showers are to be taken the night before and the morning of surgery just prior to your arrival. All adults are required to take a shower using either a Betadine or Hibiclens Surgical Scrub antibacterial soap. The reason is to remove as much bacteria from your skin as possible prior to your surgery. If you are allergic to these products please notify your physician or nurse. Perform your shower as follows:

  1. Generously lather your body, scrub well, and rinse. Give particular attention to the area were the incision will be made for your procedure.
  2. Following the morning shower, do not apply creams, body oils, lotions, perfumes, deodorants, makeup, lipstick, nail polish or any other cosmetic product to the skin or nails.
  3. Do not use Hibiclens on your face. You may use any other antibacterial soap for the face.
  4. Children under 5 years of age are to be given a bath using an over the counter antibacterial soap.

On The Day Of Surgery

The anesthesiologist will discuss with you the anesthetic most appropriate for your medical condition and procedure prior to surgery.

After your surgery you must be escorted/driven home by a responsible adult. You may take a taxi car or shuttle if accompanied by a responsible adult who can stay with you after the driver departs.

Time To Arrive For Your Surgery

During your Pre-Admission Interview, our Registered Nurse will provide you with the correct time to arrive for check-in prior to your surgery.

ARRIVAL TIME:
WHERE TO ARRIVE:

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Risks and Complications

The risks and complications for this surgery are described in the "Counseling and Pre-Op Note" that you will need to sign before the surgery. The main content of that note is listed below.


Indications:

Patient is a male with stress urinary incontinence from previous prostate surgery for benign and malignant conditions or has an incompetent sphincter secondary to neurological disease. Urodynamic studies have confirmed the presence of Type III stress urinary incontinence with a low valsalva leak point pressure.

Alternatives:

Alternatives include watchful waiting, Kegel exercises, behavioral/biofeedback/electrical stimulation therapy, injection of urethral bulking agents and male sling.

Risks/Complications:

The risks and complications of the procedure where extensively discussed with the patient. The general risks of this procedure include, but are not limited to bleeding, transfusion, infection, wound infection/dehiscence, pain, scaring of tissues, failure of the procedure, potential injury to other surrounding structures, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, death or a long-term stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Additionally, mentioned were the possible serious complications of the anesthesia to include cracked teeth, airway damage, aspiration, pneumonia, spinal head-ache, nerve damage, spinal canal bleeding and malignant hyperthermia. Your anesthesiologist will discuss the risks and complications in more depth separately. Additional procedures may be necessary.

The specific risks of this procedure include, but are not limited to: persistent incontinence, late failure of the AUS by pump/reservoir/cuff failure and fluid leakage with resultant recurrent incontinence and require partial or complete replacement of the prosthetic, atrophy of the urethra that would require further therapy with bulking agents or replacement of the AUS-800 or placement of an additional cuff to convert to a double cuffed system, acute and chronic infection that may require removal of the device, erosion of device parts through skin or urethra requiring removal, chronic epididymal or testicular pain, , numbness or hyperasthetic scrotal/perineal skin, the procedure uses a foreign body material (silicone polymer) that can be infected in the future, will require prophylactic antibiotics before other surgical and dental procedures to avoid possible seeding of the implant with bacteria, if the mesh does get infected then long-term antibiotics or removal of the mesh may be necessary.

You understand the procedure, general and specific risks as discussed and agree to proceed with the procedure. You also understand that not every possible complication can be listed in this counseling note and additional risks are possible, although unlikely.


To view the actual printable form for this surgery, click here: Counseling Note for Artifical Urinary Sphincter (AUS-800). To print the document, simply select print after you have opened the page. You can use that copy to sign before your surgery.

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Detailed Surgery Description

Terminology tip: If you come across words you don't understand, look them up in the On-Line Medical Dictionary�.


Indications: Patient is a male with Stress urinary Incontinence.

Sample Procedure Dictation:

The patient was given spinal/general anesthesia, placed in the Lithotomy position and then prepped and draped in the usual standard sterile manner. A 16 Fr Foley catheter was placed. A midline perineal incision from just below the scrotum to just above the anus was made through the skin. The subcutaneous tissues were sequentially dissected with bovie coagulation until the bulbocavernosus muscle and the Corpus Spongiosum was noted. The bulbocavernosus muscle was divided in the midline to expose the spongiosum. Lateral dissection to isolate the spongiosum was accomplished without difficulty. The location of the urethra was noted by palpating the catheter. Posterior dissection was also performed to fully isolate the spongiosum and urethra. This was then secured with a � inch penrose drain. Simultaneously a small midline incision was placed just above the symphysis pubis, dissection to the rectus fascia was accomplished, and a vertical incision was made for placement of the AUS-800 reservoir. A sub-rectus pouch was made to accommodate the reservoir and approximately 23cc of fluid. Pre-placed 2-0 interrupted vicryl sutures were placed to avoid inadvertent damage to the filled reservoir later in the case. A subcutaneous tunnel was made from the suprapubic area into the scrotum for placement of the AUS-800 scrotal pump. A similar subcutaneous tunnel was made to the approximate location of the urethral cuff. The urethral diameter was carefully measured for correct sizing of the cuff. A 4.5 cm urethral cuff size was noted. The cuff, pump, 60-70 cm reservoir and the accessory kit were all soaked in antibiotic solution until assembled. An approximate 10% Hypaque solution was formulated for instillation into the AUS-800. The entire balloon reservoir was flushed of air and 22cc of the 10% Hypaque solution was placed after the reservoir was placed in the sub-rectus pouch. The anterior abdominal wall was palpated and the expanded reservoir could not be easily identified. The pump was flushed of all large air with normal saline solution. The ends of the tubing were clamped with mosquitoes with rubber shods. A similar maneuver was accomplished with the urethral cuff. All Air and fluid was removed from the cuff and then placed around the urethra. It was noted to be of correct size. It was tested with 2.0-2.5 cc of normal saline for fit. The patients Foley catheter was removed after the bladder was filled with 250 cc of saline. Direct pressure was applied to the bladder and no urinary leakage was noted with the cuff inflated. Brisk leakage was noted with the cuff deflated. After placement of the cuff, the tubing was brought through the previously made subcutaneous tunnel to the suprapubic incision site. The pump was placed into the scrotum and loosely sutured to the most dependent portion of dartos fascia with 2- vicryl suture. The pump was palpated through the scrotal skin and noted to be in a dependent position easily pulled down for manual use. The tubing was then connected with the provided tubing connectors in a manner to leave the least amount of tubing in place and to remove all air from the system. Once fully connected the prosthesis was cycle through multiple trials of use and noted to be in good working order. The cuff was emptied of 2/3 of its fluid and the AUS-800 was then deactivated. Pressure to the bladder produced urinary leakage once the AUS was deactivated. The rectus fascia was closed with the pre-placed sutures. After copious irrigation with antibiotic solution, the Scarpa�s layer was closed with interrupted 2-0 vicryl sutures and the skin was closed with a subcuticular layer of 4-0 monocryl suture. The wound was steri-striped and bandaged. All bleeders were bovie coagulated and the wound was irrigated and inspected for further bleeding. The perineal incision was closed in three layers with 2-0 vicryl sutures. The wound was copiously irrigated with normal saline prior to subcuticular skin closure with 4-0 monocryl. The wound was bandaged. The perineal bandage was secured with an athletic supporter. A 16 French Foley catheter was placed, put to gravity drainage and secured. Patient was then awaken from anesthesia without complications and transferred to the Recovery Room (RR). The patient arrived to the RR in stable condition and without complications.

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Family Waiting Instructions

To the family and friends of patients undergoing surgery.

SCHEDULED STARTING TIME OF SURGERY:

ESTIMATED LENGTH OF SURGERY:

You should plan to check in at the waiting area information desk as soon as your family member or friend has left for the Operating Room. This is the only way we can talk to you afterwards, or on occasion; reach you to give you updates on the operation's progress. If the surgery is scheduled for many hours, you can leave to eat or do other things, but you should let the information desk know that you are going to leave the area, where you are going, and how long you might be gone so that we might reach you if need be. You should be in the area before the elected time of the end of the operation.

The information deck will overhead page you or the "family of" when they receive the recovery call to let you know that the surgery has been completed. The overhead page system works ONLY on the Surgical Waiting Area and not throughout the hospital or the cafeteria.

We will plan to see you in the surgical waiting area after we have safely completed the early phases of the post-anesthesia recovery in the "Recovery Room" or PAR (Post Anesthesia Recovery). This may take up to an hour after the initial call. Sometimes, especially if another case is ready to start, we will call and talk to you. If for some reason, we have not come or called within 30 minutes, please ask the information desk to page us.

Your family member will be in the Recovery Room for 1-2 hours. This is standard recovery time, although the times vary with each individual. For example, spinal anesthetics take longer to "wear off," local anesthetics are much shorter acting. Under no circumstances are family members or friends allowed in the recovery room. The information deck will inform you of the patient's return to the room as soon as they receive the information that the patient has left recovery. At that time, they will give you the room number and direct you to the correct wing and floor.

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Post-Operative Instructions

Activity

  1. No heavy lifting (more than 15 lbs.) for 4 weeks (1 week for an implant).
  2. No driving for 3 weeks (1 week for an implant). We also discourage riding in a car since the vibrations and movement may cause bleeding.
  3. Use the stairs infrequently. Take one step at a time, and have assistance available.
  4. No long trips for 3 weeks.
  5. No cutting the lawn, shoveling snow, raking leaves, etc., for 4 weeks.
  6. No sexual activity for 6 weeks after surgery.
  7. No manipulation of the prosthesis
  8. Showers after the bandages are removed (48 hrs) are okay. It is okay to wash the wound, do not rub the wound just pat dry it. Avoid tub baths or swimming in a pool for 1 week.
  9. Regular light activity is encouraged several times daily. We encourage walking. Do not be a couch potato.
  10. If discomfort returns then reduce activity, take it easy, and more gradually resume activities.

Diet

  1. Drink plenty of fluids. We recommend 24-32 oz over your usual daily fluid intake. Limit fluids after 6 PM. Avoid tea, coffee (including decaf) and pop.
  2. Resume a regular diet at home. Take high calorie supplements if appetite is poor.
  3. If you have a special diet secondary to Diabetes, Renal Disease, Liver Disease, etc. you may resume eating when tolerated.

Medication

  1. Please take the medications as prescribed by your doctor. Start them on day of discharge, and please complete the entire prescription. Take pain medication only as needed. Try Tylenol or Motrin for milder pain. You will typically be discharged with your old medications and new pain medication, antibiotics and stool softeners
  2. Resume all medications you normally took before surgery, unless instructed otherwise. Do not take blood thinners or aspirin products for 1-2 weeks or as directed.
  3. If there is a problem taking or getting the medication, call us.

Catheter and Wound Care

  1. Do not remove the dressing from the wound unless instructed. If you are home with a bandage, it is usually removed after 48 hrs.
  2. Your sutures will dissolve over time and do not need to be removed. Your steri-strips will fall off over a two-week period; please let them fall off on their own rather than removing them. You can trim the edges of the steri-strips that have rolled up onto themselves if they bother you.
  3. You may cover the wound with gauze if there is mild drainage.
  4. If the wound becomes red, inflamed, or has excessive drainage, please contact your doctor immediately.
  5. If you notice pus coming from any wound, please call your physician.
  6. Expect some spotting or bleeding from your incision for the next 1-week, if it progressively worsens then please call your physician.
  7. If you have a catheter in place, wash around it gently with soap and water. Keep the catheter taped to your thigh or abdomen to avoid inadvertent jerking or pulling. Do not disconnect the catheter from the drainage bag unless directed by your doctor. You may apply Bacitracin ointment at the point the catheter enters your body.

Bowel Movements

  1. Do not strain when having a bowel movement. Expect irregular bowel habits after surgery until fully recovered. Increase fiber in your diet.
  2. You may need to use a stool softener or laxative. Try Colace (Docusate Sodium), Metamucil or Milk of Magnesia at your local pharmacy.

When to Contact your Doctor

  1. Excessive bleeding or passage of large clots. Also if you feel your bladder is not draining or if you are unable to urinate.
  2. Fevers greater than 101º F, excessive chills.
  3. Nausea and vomiting or inability to keep down fluids.
  4. If you have any questions or concerns that are not covered by this handout.
  5. Significant tenderness or swelling in the legs, chest pain, shortness of breath.
  6. If it is a serious emergency, go the Emergency Room or call 911.
  7. Please call the office to arrange your follow-up appointment.

Contacting Your Physician

Dr. Bauer can be contacted by calling the number listed at the top of the page. You may also call the hospital to have them contact us. Please do not hesitate to call with any questions or concerns.

Frequently Asked Questions after surgery

This section is under construction.

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